Mitigation Actions

India is committed to the implementation of mitigation policies and is proactively promoting low carbon and sustainable lifestyles. India’s mitigation policies and actions must be understood in the context of its longstanding position that climate change is a global challenge, a position in accordance with the spirit of the UNFCCC. This global challenge requires collective action, specifically to solve the problem of managing the global commons that is the Earth’s carbon system. Greenhouse gas emissions anywhere in the world contribute to global warming, and as a result, global cooperation among all countries is required – an individual country’s efforts alone will not bear fruit unless accompanied by adequate action by the others. India has always emphasized the importance of basing such collective effort on equity and the concept of common but differentiated responsibilities in line with the Convention.

Actions taken by various Ministries and Authorities

Programme/Scheme: Solar Energy

Sector: Renewable Energy

Objective: To deploy 100 GW solar power by 2022.

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Programme/Scheme: Wind Energy

Sector: Renewable Energy

Objective: Deployment of 60 GW Wind Energy by 2022 and stable at the same level until 2030

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Programme/Scheme: Small Hydro and Biomass

Sector: Renewable Energy

Objective: Deployment of 15 GW Small Hydro and Biomass based power by 2022

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Programme/Scheme: Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA)

Sector: Energy Efficiency

Objective: To recognize energy-efficient buildings, as well as to stimulate their large scale replication

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Programme/Scheme: Green Energy Corridor Project

Sector: Renewable Energy

Objective: Aims at synchronizing electricity produced from renewable sources, such as solar and wind, with conventional power stations in the grid.

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Programme/Scheme: International Solar Alliance (ISA)

Sector: Renewable Energy

Objective: To provide a dedicated platform for cooperation among solar-resource-rich countries, through which the global community, including governments, bilateral and multilateral organizations, corporates, industry, and other stakeholders, can contribute to help achieve the common goal of increasing the use and quality of solar energy in meeting energy needs of prospective ISA member countries in a safe, convenient, affordable, equitable and sustainable manner.

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Programme/Scheme: Perform Achieve and Trade (PAT)

Sector: Energy Efficiency

Objective: Market based mechanism to enhance Energy Efficiency through certification of energy saving which can be traded. Under the PAT scheme, targets to reduce the Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) of energy intensive industries are assigned and evaluated after a period of three years.

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Programme/Scheme: Star Rated Appliances

Sector: Energy Efficiency

Objective: To provide the consumer an informed choice about the energy saving and thereby the cost saving potential of the marketed household and other equipment.

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Programme/Scheme: Energy Conservation Building Code 2017

Sector: Energy Efficiency

Objective: To establish minimum energy performance standards for buildings in India.

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Programme/Scheme: ECO Niwas Samhita 2018

Sector: Energy Efficiency

Objective: Implementation of Energy Conservation Building Code for Residential Buildings (ECBC-R) is expected to save 125 Billion Units of electricity per year by 2030, which is equivalent to 100 million ton of CO2 emission; 26 industrial units get National Energy Conservation Awards for excellent performance in energy efficiency; 19 school children win National Painting Competition prizes.

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Programme/Scheme: Agricultural Demand Side Management

Sector: Energy Efficiency

Objective: Objective of the program is to reduce the energy intensity of agriculture pumping sector by carrying out efficiency up gradation of agricultural pump sets.

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Programme/Scheme: Street Lighting National Programme (SLNP)

Sector: Energy Efficiency

Objective: Deployment of LED street lights that are approximately 50% more energy efficient than incandescent bulbs and High-Pressure Sodium (HPS) lighting.

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Programme/Scheme: Unnat Jeevan by Affordable LEDs and Appliances for All (UJALA) – LED Bulbs

Sector: Energy Efficiency

Objective: Developed to address India’s high cost of electrification and high emissions from inefficient lighting. It aimed at distributing LED Bulbs Lights to households.

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Programme/Scheme: Unnat Jeevan by Affordable LEDs and Appliances for All (UJALA) – LED Tube Lights

Sector: Energy Efficiency

Objective: Developed to address India’s high cost of electrification and high emissions from inefficient lighting. It aimed at distributing LED Tube Lights to households.

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Programme/Scheme: PAVAN– Energy Efficient Fans

Sector: Energy Efficiency

Objective: It aimed at distributing Energy Efficient fans to households.

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Programme/Scheme: Fuel Consumption Standards

Sector: Transport

Objective: This standard is applicable for the motor vehicle using petrol or diesel or liquefied petroleum gas or compressed natural gas, which carry passengers and their luggage and comprising not more than nine seats including driver’s seat, and of Gross Vehicle Weight not exceeding 3,500 kilograms tested.

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Programme/Scheme: National Smart Grid Mission

Sector: Energy Efficiency

Objective: Established to accelerate Smart Grid deployment in India

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Programme/Scheme: SME Cluster Programs for Energy Efficiency

Sector: Energy Efficiency

Objective: GEF-UNIDO-BEE programme as well as Letters of Credit (LoC) issued by KfW, IFC and other lenders to SIDBI to mainstream energy efficiency amongst MSME

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Programme/Scheme: Municipality Demand Side Management (Mu-DSM)

Sector: Energy Efficiency

Objective: The basic objective of the project was to improve the overall energy efficiency of the urban local bodies (ULBs), which could lead to substantial savings in the electricity consumption, thereby resulting in cost reduction/savings for the ULBs.

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Programme/Scheme: Bachat Lamp Yojana (BLY)

Sector: Energy Efficiency

Objective: To provide Energy Efficient Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) at the same cost i.e. Rs.15, as of Incandescent Bulbs.

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Programme/Scheme: Framework for Energy Efficient Economic Development (FEEED)

Sector: Energy Efficiency

Objective: To build the market for energy efficiency it is imperative to ease the financing of energy efficiency projects.

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Programme/Scheme: Energy Efficiency Financing Platform (EEFP)

Sector: Energy Efficiency

Objective: To provide a platform to interact with Financial Institutions (FIs) and project developers for implementation of energy efficiency projects.

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Programme/Scheme: Super-Efficient Equipment Programme (SEEP)

Sector: Energy Efficiency

Objective: Designed to bring accelerated market transformation for super-efficient appliances by providing financial stimulus innovatively at critical point/s of intervention.

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Programme/Scheme: Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

Sector: Multiple

Objective: Flagship programme addressing climate change mitigation and simultaneously giving an opportunity to developing countries in meeting their sustainable development objectives. CDM allows emission reduction or removal projects in developing countries to generate carbon offset credit, each equivalent to one tonne of carbon dioxide. These certified emission reduction credits (CERs) could be traded, sold and used by industrialized countries to meet part of their emission reduction targets under Kyoto Protocol.

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Programme/Scheme: National Afforestation Programme

Sector: Forestry

Objective: Includes afforestation and reforestation of degraded forests and non forest areas.

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Programme/Scheme: Compensatory Afforestation Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA)

Sector: Forestry

Objective: Promoting afforestation and regeneration activities as a way of compensating for forest land diverted to non-forest uses.

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Programme/Scheme: REDD+ Reducing emissions

Sector: Forestry

Objective: To achieve additional carbon sequestration, emission reduction, improve forest based livelihoods, conservation of rare, endemic, and endangered species found in the area and improvement of watershed hydrology.

More about REDD+ National Strategy

More about Forest reference Level


Programme/Scheme: National Clean Air Programme (NCAP)

Sector: Multiple

Objective: Time bound national level strategy for pan India implementation to tackle the increasing air pollution problem across the country in a comprehensive manner. Target is for reduction of 20-30% of PM2.5 and PM10 concentration by 2024.

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Programme/Scheme: Climate Change Action Programme (CCAP)

Sector: Research

Objective: to create and strengthen the scientific and analytical capacity for assessment of climate change in the country, putting in place appropriate institutional framework for scientific and policy initiatives and implementation of climate change related actions in the context of sustainable development. Major components of the CCAP scheme include the National Carbonaceous Aerosols Programme (NCAP) – a multi-institutional programme developed with a view to monitor and study carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon and Long Term Ecological Observatories (LTEO) – aims at creating a network of field sites at various ecological regions in the country for undertaking long term observations of the effects of climate change.


Programme/Scheme: Nagar Van Udyan Yojana

Sector: Forestry

Objective: Aims at ecological rejuvenation of the city forests by creating/ developing at least one city forest in each city having Municipal Corporation/ Class I Cities for providing wholesome healthy living environment.

Programme/Scheme: Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban)

Sector: Waste Management

Objective: Mission includes Solid Waste Management including the establishment of waste to energy plants and provides Central Financial Assistance up to 35% of the project cost.

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Programme/Scheme: Smart Cities Mission

Sector: Multiple

Objective: Launched for providing a clean and sustainable urban environment through the adoption of ‘smart solutions’. Resource efficiency and energy optimization are central to these smart solutions identified under the Mission.

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Programme/Scheme: Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT)

Sector: Multiple

Objective: : Providing basic services (e.g. water supply, sewerage, urban transport) to households and build amenities in cities which will improve the quality of life for all, especially the poor and the disadvantaged is a national priority.

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Programme/Scheme: Metro projects in India

Sector: Transport

Objective: : To enhance urban mobility as well as the speed and quality of implementation of metro projects

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Programme/Scheme: Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana

Sector: Energy

Objective: Provide LPG connections to BPL households reducing the demand for traditional biomass from forests.

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Programme/Scheme: National Policy on Biofuels – 2018

Sector: Energy

Objective: Aimed at taking forward the indicative target of achieving 20% blending of bio-fuels with fossil-based fuels by 2025.

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Roadmap for Ethanol Blending in India 2020-25


Programme/Scheme: Auto Fuel Vision And Policy 2025

Sector: Energy

Objective: Recommend road map for auto fuel quality till 2025 for the country, taking into account the achievement under the last Auto Fuel Policy, emission reduction of in-use vehicles, growth of vehicles and supply and availability of fuels.

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Programme/Scheme: Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana

Sector: Agriculture

Objective: It provides end-to-end solutions in irrigation supply chain and aims to use micro irrigation technologies extensively to save water, increase production and productivity of crops in a sustainable manner and help in achieving food security. It has led to an emission reduction of 22.82 MtCO2e during 2010-2016.

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Programme/Scheme: National Bamboo Mission

Sector: Forestry

Objective: Mission would help in increasing the green cover area of the country and also supplement the farm income of participating communities.

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Programme/Scheme: : Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture

Sector: Agriculture

Objective: Centrally Sponsored Scheme for the holistic growth of the horticulture sector covering fruits, vegetables, root & tuber crops, mushrooms, spices, flowers, aromatic plants, coconut, cashew, cocoa and bamboo.

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Programme/Scheme: : Mission Organic for Value Chain Development for North East (MOVCD)

Sector: Agriculture

Objective: Aims to development of certified organic production in a value chain mode to link growers with consumers and to support the development of entire value chain starting from inputs, seeds, certification, to the creation of facilities for collection, aggregation, processing, marketing and brand building initiative.

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Programme/Scheme: : Rainfed Area Development (RAD)

Sector: Agriculture

Objective: To explore potential utilization of natural resources base/assets available/created through watershed development and soil conservation activities/interventions under MGNREGS, NWDPRA, RVP&FPR, RKVY, IWMP etc. This component will introduce appropriate farming systems by integrating multiple components of agriculture such as crops, horticulture, livestock, fishery, forestry with agro- based income generating activities and value addition.

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Programme/Scheme: : Sub-Mission on Agroforestry

Sector: Forestry

Objective: Launched in 2016-17 to encourage tree plantation on farm land “Har Medh Par Ped”, along with crops/ cropping system. The scheme is being implemented in the States which have liberalized transit regulations for selected tree species.

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Programme/Scheme: Namami Gange (forestry intervention)

Sector: Forestry

Objective: Afforestation and reforestation on identified diverse forest area.

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Programme/Scheme: Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin)

Sector: Waste Management

Objective: Mission includes Solid Waste Management including the establishment of waste to energy plants and provides Central Financial Assistance up to 35% of the project cost.

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Programme/Scheme: National Green Highway Mission

Sector: Forestry

Objective: Avenue plantation on highways aiming to develop 140,000 km long ‘tree line’ with plantation along both sides of the national highway in five years 1915.53 km length national highway awarded for avenue plantation


Programme/Scheme: Peripheral Expressway

Sector: Transport

Objective: Contribute towards the twin objectives of decongesting and de-polluting the national capital by diverting traffic not destined for Delhi.

  1. The two projects of Peripheral Expressways around Delhi, comprising 135 km Eastern Peripheral Expressway (EPE), and 135 km Western Peripheral Expressway (WPE) connecting NH-1 and NH-2 from Western and Eastern side of Delhi was completed in May, 2018 and November 2018 with the twin purpose of decongesting and de-polluting the capital by diverting the traffic not destined for Delhi.
  2. 30000 to 40000 goods vehicles not destined for Delhi and diverted away from national capital due to WPE and EPE.

Programme/Scheme: National Electric Mobility Mission Plan 2020

Sector: Transport

Objective: Promoting eco-friendly vehicles in the country – hybrid and electric technologies

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Programme/Scheme: Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles in India (FAME India)

Sector: Transport

Objective: Promoting eco-friendly vehicles in the country – hybrid and electric technologies

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FAME Phase I

FAME Phase II

Programme/Scheme: Dedicated Freight Corridor under DFCCIL

Sector: Transport

Objective: Construction of six freight corridors traversing the entire country to provide a safe and efficient low carbon freight transportation system

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Programme/Scheme: Energy Efficient Rolling Stock

Sector: Transport

Objective: Setting up of Electric Locomotive Factory of 12000 HP Electric Locomotives.

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Programme/Scheme: Green Energy Initiatives

Sector: Transport

Objective: Railways Electrification; Energy Conservation; Solar Energy; Wind Energy.

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Programme/Scheme: Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC)

Sector: Transport

Objective: UNFCCC registered DMRC as the world’s first transport sector project under the Program of Activities (PoA). This makes Delhi Metro the managing entity for all other metros of India for fast tracking the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) registration of all the upcoming rail based metro systems in India in future.

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Programme/Scheme: Zero Defect and Zero Effect (ZED)

Sector: Industry

Objective: Policy initiative to rate Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) on quality control and certification for energy efficiency, enhanced resources efficiency, pollution control, use of renewable energy and waste management using ZED Maturity Assessment Model.

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Programme/Scheme: Steel Scrap Recycling Policy

Sector: Waste

Objective: To create a mechanism for treating waste streams and residues produced from dismantling and shredding facilities in compliance to Hazardous & Other Wastes (Management & Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016 issued by MoEFCC.

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