India’s Climate Profile

    • Population:

      1.21 billion (Census 2011)

    • Land Area:

      328.73 million hectares (2.4% of the global land area)

    • Area under Agriculture (net sown area) as Percentage of the Total Geographical Area:


    • Forest and Tree Cover as Percentage of the Total Geographical Area (India State of the Forest Report 2019)


    • From an environmental and bio-geographical perspective, the country can be divided into 15 agro-ecological regions:

    • Types of Climate:

      India hosts five major climatic subtypes:

      • Hot dry in the west

      • Warm humid in the Deccan region

      • Composite across the upper Gangetic plains and central India

      • Temperate in certain hilly patches within the Deccan region

      • Cold in the Himalayan region across north and north-east India

    • Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Profile:

      In 2016 India’s total GHG emissions, excluding Land Use Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) were 2,838.89 million tonne CO2e and 2,531.07 million tonne CO2e with the inclusion of LULUCF.

    • Per capita GHG Emissions:

      India’s per capita GHG emissions (including LULUCF) in 2016, were 1.96 tCO2e which is less than one third of the world’s per capita GHG emissions (6.55 t CO2e) (CAIT database, 2020) for the same year.

    • Key Emitting Sectors:

      Energy, Transportation, Construction

    • • Energy – 75.01%

      • Agriculture – 14.37%

      • Industrial process – 7.98%

      • Waste – 2.65%

    • Key Climate Risks:

      Floods, Droughts, Heat Waves, Cold Waves and Cyclones

    • Vulnerable Sectors:

      Agriculture & FoodWaterCoastalHealthForests & other natural ecosystems

      Threats to agriculture and food security, since agriculture is monsoon dependent and rainfed agriculture dominates in many states.
      Water stress and reduction in the availability of fresh water due to potential decline in rainfall.
      Adverse impact of sea-level rise on coastal agriculture and settlements.
      Impact on human health due to the increase in vector and water-borne diseases, such as malaria.
      Shifts in area and boundary of different forest types and threats to biodiversity with adverse implications for forest-dependent communities. Adverse impact on natural ecosystems, such as wetlands, mangroves and coral reefs, grasslands and mountain ecosystems
Western Himalayan Eastern Himalayan Region Lower Gangetic Plain Region Middle Gangetic Plain Region Upper Gangetic Plains Region Trans-Ganga Plains Region Eastern Plateau and Hills Central Plateau and Hills Western Plateau and Hills Southern Plateau and Hills Eastern Coastal Plains and Hills Western Coastal Plains and Ghats Gujarat Plains and Hills Western Dry Region Island Region Island Region